Monday, July 13, 2020
Basic Facts About Cocaine and Crack More in Addiction Drug Use Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Ecstasy/MDMA Hallucinogens Opioids Prescription Medications Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery Cocaine is a powerfully addictive drug of abuse. Once having tried cocaine, users cannot predict or control the extent to which they will continue to use the drug.?? Though cocaine abuse is down, it remains the second most used illicit drug in America.?? What Is Cocaine? Cocaine is a drug created from a paste extracted from the leaves of the South American coca plant. It is a strong stimulant that affects the bodys central nervous system. Cocaine can be injected, smoked, sniffed, or snorted. Cocaine can be mixed with other drugs including the anesthetic procaine and amphetamine. When cocaine and heroin are combined, it produces what is called a speedball.?? Cocaine Use Statistics Cocaine is the second most commonly used illicit drug in the U.S.Nearly 1.5 million Americans (0.6 percent of the population) reported using cocaine according to a 2014 study.The rate of use has remained relatively steady since 2009 after a sharp decline from the 1990s and early 2000s.Users can be from all economic status, all ages, and all genders. A higher rate is reported among young adults between 18 and 25 years old. What Cocaine Looks Like Cocaine is a white crystalline powder. Crack cocaine looks like a small rock, chunk or chip and it is sometimes off-white or pink in color. Its common for street dealers to cut, or dilute, cocaine with a variety of substances. This is used to make more money since its sold by the weight. The additives can include anything thats white and powdery including cornstarch, talcum powder, flour, and baking soda.?? This Is What Cocaine and Crack Cocaine Look Like Effects of Cocaine The drug creates a strong sense of exhilaration. Users generally feel invincible, carefree, alert, euphoric, and have a lot of energy. This is usually followed by agitation, depression, anxiety, paranoia, and decreased appetite. The effects of cocaine generally last up to one hour.?? Dangers of Cocaine Use Cocaine is a potent and dangerous drug. The short-term and long-term effects of cocaine are equally serious. The most serious danger is death, resulting in cardiac arrest of seizures followed by respiratory failure. This can occur at anytime during short or long-term use. Other effects of the drug include:?? InsomniaLoss of appetiteBlurred visionVomitingHigh anxietyIrritabilityConstricted blood vesselsDilated pupilsNasal infectionsNosebleedsRapid breathingSweatingViolent behaviorTwitchingHallucinationsChest pain The long-term effects of using cocaine can include extreme agitation, violent mood swings, and depression. Prolonged use of snorting cocaine cause ulcerations in the mucous membrane of the nose and holes in the barrier separating the nostrils. It can also result in a loss of appetite, extreme insomnia, and sexual problems. Heart disease, heart attacks, respiratory failure, strokes, seizures, and gastrointestinal problems are not uncommon among long-term users of cocaine and crack.?? How Can You Reduce the Risks of Cocaine Use? Street Names for Cocaine Cocaine has a wide variety of street names. Among those are Coke, Dust, Toot, Line, Nose Candy, Snow. Sneeze, Powder, Girl, White Pony, Flake, C, The Lady, Cain, Neurocain, and Rock. Crack cocaine is also called freebase. Crack Cocaine Crack cocaine is a highly addictive and powerful stimulant that is derived from powdered cocaine. Crack is made by dissolving powdered cocaine in a mixture of water and ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). The mixture is boiled until a solid substance forms. It is removed from the liquid, dried, and then broken into the chunks (rocks) that are sold as crack cocaine.?? Due to its availability and intense effects, crack is also popular. Health risks and problems resulting from crack use are the same as those listed for cocaine. However, because of the intensity of the drug, it is a higher risk.?? Crack is almost always smoked, delivering a large quantity of the drug to the lungs. This produces an immediate and intense euphoric effect. Cocaine Addiction Cocaine is highly addictive, leaving users with an overwhelming craving for the drug. The addiction to crack develops quickly, sometimes after just a few times of smoking it. Those addicted to cocaine or crack can find help with behavioral treatments including both residential and outpatient approaches.
Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Platos Life Plato was born in Athens, about 427 B.C., and died there about 347 B.C. In early life Plato saw war service and had political ambitions. However, he was never really sympathetic to the Athenian democracy and he could not join wholeheartedly in its government. He was a devoted follower of Socrates, whose disciple he became in 409 B.C., and the execution of that philosopher by the democrats in 399 B.C. was a crushing blow. He left Athens, believing that until Ã¢â¬Å"kings were philosophers or philosophers were kingsÃ¢â¬ things would never go well with the world. ( He traced his decent from the early kings of Athens and perhaps he had himself in mind). For several years he visited the Greeks cities of Africa and Italy,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s works, perhaps the most consistently popular and influential philosophic writings ever published, consist of a series of dialogues in which the discussions between Socrates and others are presented with infinite charm. Most of our knowledge of Socrates is from these dialogues, which views are SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ and which are PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s is anybody Ã¢â¬Ës guess. ( Plato cautiously never introduced himself into any of the dialogues. Like Socrates, Plato was chiefly interested in moral philosophy and despised natural philosophy ( that is, science ) as an inferior and unworthy sort of knowledge. There is a famous story (probably apocryphal and told also of Euclid of a student asking Plato the application of the knowledge he was being taught. Plato at once ordered a slave to give the student a small coin that the might not think he had gained knowledge for nothing, then had him dismissed from school. To Plato, knowledge had no practical use, it existed for the abstract good of the soul. Plato was found of mathematics because of its idealized abstractions and its separation from the merely material. Nowadays, of course, the purest mathematics manages to be applied to the heavens. The heavenly bodies, he believed, exhibited perfect geometric form. This he expresses most clearly in a dialogue called Timaeus in which he presents his scheme of the universe. He describes the five ( and only five) possible regular solidsÃ¢â¬â that is, those with equivalent faces and with allShow MoreRelatedPlatos Views On Life And Death1859 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesfocusing on nonphysical forms as a means to the truth, Plato uniquely analyzes the true implications of life and death. Plato applies his personal viewpoints on the connection between soul and body in order to direct people towards an appropriate approach to life and prepare them for what to expect after. After much conversation with others, Plato created his own firm ideals about the topics of life and death that I am later going to compare to my own. Philosophers are known to be avid seekers of knowledgeRead MorePlatos The Apology : The Meaning Of Life759 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The ApologyÃ¢â¬ takes places in Athens in 399 BC. Socrates, a natural philosopher, is put on trial and accused of failing to recognize the god of Athens, creating new deities, and corrupting the minds of the city youth. The Athenians, Anytus, Meletus, and Lycon fear that SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ teachings lack respect for the legal customs and religious beliefs established in the city and could create a damaging effect on AthensÃ¢â¬â¢ community (Dan I.(n.d.). In this piece, Plato writes an account of SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢Read MorePlatos Happiest Way of Life Essay780 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPlatos Happiest Way of Life A just life in a just society would be the happiest possible way to live for Plato. Justice is defined as a balanced and well-integrated specialization of functions both within the scope of society and the individual. The just society classifies its members on the basis of individual differences in intellectual and physical abilities and is therefore warranted. The way to achieve a happy life is only half satisfied with the presence of a just society. Other thanRead MorePlatos Views on Life after Death1388 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPlatos views on life after death were manifold, and developed over time as an examination of a bevy of his literature readily indicates. However, during all phases of his writing he does demonstrate that there is in fact life after physical death, which is widely attributed to his notion of the soul. Plat always viewed the soul as an entity that was distinct from the physical body. Moreover, while the physical body was destined to die, the soul was enduring, i nterminable, and destined to go on somewhereRead More Life Of Lycurgus, And Platos Allegory Of The Cave1043 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfollowing texts: The Enchiridion by Epictetus, PlutarchÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËLife of Lycurgus,Ã¢â¬â¢ and PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Allegory of the CaveÃ¢â¬ . Each of which, play a role in achieving a stronger community. While the laws instilled in citizens reflect a leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s inspiration, confidence creates prudence to ensure the stability of a state. A leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s inspiration contributes to the development of the laws enforced, which leads to a stable society. In PlutarchÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËLife of Lycurgus,Ã¢â¬â¢ Lycurgus gains inspiration from his travels toRead MoreA Critical Analysis Of Citizen Life In Platos The Republic1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThis philosophical study will compare the two paradigmatic regimes of the aristocracy and tyranny and also provide a critical analysis of citizen life in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Republic. The similarities between SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ definition of the Philosopher King of the aristocracy and the tyrant are that a single ruler governs over the republic. In some ways, the empowerment of a single individual provides a catalyst for an aristocratic engagement of the nobleman to support this form of governance. In these seeminglyRead MoreShutter Island : A Life In The Cave : Platos Allegory Of The Cave1677 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHayley Vlaz-Troutman Professor Mileo Philosophy 243 17 Septemeber 2017 Shutter Island: A life in the cave PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Allegory of the Cave dates back many years. However, it is relevant today in many ways. This view can be observed and experienced in our society, in our personal ways of thinking and being, and in many cinematic adventures one can enjoy. I chose to look at it in terms of personal application to find its relevancy andRead MoreImmanuel Kant : A Worthwhile Life In Platos Five Dialogues1632 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhat determines Ã¢â¬Å"a life worth livingÃ¢â¬ has remained a question philosophers have asked since the birth of philosophy. Socrates, a well-known philosopher puts it simply: Ã¢â¬Å"The unexamined life is not worth livingÃ¢â¬ (Plato 41). Now, this is wonderful advice if one could only figure out what exactly an Ã¢â¬Å"examinedÃ¢â¬ life would consist of. While Socrates, through PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Dialogues, provides a method for examination, it is not very clear what is always right or wrong. Immanuel Kant through his work, GroundworkRead MoreE ssay about The Value of Life in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Cave and the Divided Lines674 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Cave and the Divided Lines People must learn the value of life and the difference between living a dream and making your dreams come true. Being considered a father in western philosophy, Plato presented the Divided Line and PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Cave to show the differences between the intelligent and visible world people live in; as the visible world being a world of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own reflections and shadowingÃ¢â¬â¢s, while the intelligent world is about the mind and thoughts. Plato uses a complex dialogue ofRead MoreIn the words attributed to Socrates in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Apology, Ã¢â¬Å"The unexamined life is not worth living.Ã¢â¬ 1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the words attributed to Socrates in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Apology, Ã¢â¬Å"The unexamined life is not worth living.Ã¢â¬ David Foster Wallace expands on this idea in his Ã¢â¬Å"Kenyon College 2005 Commencement Address,Ã¢â¬ pointing out the importance of awareness and escaping the natural, default-setting of an unconscious, self-centred life. While commencem ent speeches are typically epideicticÃ¢â¬âcelebratoryÃ¢â¬âin nature, Wallace takes a deliberative rhetorical stance. According to Fahnestock, deliberative discourse is used in order
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Indian removal was a 19th-century course of action to forcefully migrate Native Americans. It started with tribes living on land east of the Mississippi River being forced to move to the west. The ethnic cleansing did not stop there, but instead began to spread. Impatient for land, settlers harassed the government to acquire more Indian Territory. However, throughout the seemingly innocent relocation process many Native American tribes were deceived through treaties and poorly treated. Resentment of the Cherokee had been accumulating for some time before it reached its peak following the unearthing of gold in northern Georgia. White communities were possessed with gold fever and the desire to expand their lands. With this in mind, the U.S. government decided it was time for the Cherokees to be removed. Senators Daniel Webster and Henry Clay were against the removal of the Cherokee. The missionary to the Cherokees challenged GeorgiaÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to eliminate their title to land in Georgia. His case went before the Supreme Court and he won. According to the Cherokee Nation, Ã¢â¬Å"Worcester vs. Georgia, 1832 and Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia, 1831 are considered the two most influential legal decisions in Indian law.Ã¢â¬ Georgia won the case in 1831 but in Worcester vs. Georgia, the Supreme Court declared Cherokee sovereignty. In spite of the courtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision, President Andrew Jackson ordered the removal of the Cherokee. The Cherokee Nation believes Ã¢â¬ Å"this act established the U.S.Show MoreRelatedHow We Are Affected by Peoples Views of Nature871 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesGreat West by William Cronon, The Ecological Indian by Shepard Krech III, and Somethings Rising: Appalachians Fighting Mountaintop Removal by Silas House makes it easy to comprehend and to answer how our views of nature have changed. Looking all the way back to the early Indians, Shepard Krech III, the author of The Ecological Indian, the Indians were not the Ã¢â¬Å"one with natureÃ¢â¬ individuals you thought they were. Most people that first think of the Indians were Ã¢â¬Å"one with natureÃ¢â¬ because of movies andRead MoreThe Negative Effects Of The Indian Removal1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIndian Removal Looking throughout the overwhelming events the American Revolution had on everyone involved, allows us to examine how the governmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ policies toward the Indians changed over time. It shows how the policy changes effected the Indians as well as the AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢, their attitudes toward each other as the AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s pushed westward and the Indians resisted. Then the actions on both sides which lead up to the final removal of all Indians to west of the Mississippi in 1830Ã¢â¬â¢s. The governmentRead MoreAmerica has many presidents who are still remembered with their legacies, but President Andrew1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAndrew JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s presidency is a history of which the Native American will never forget. JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s democracy was not in support for women to vote, and black men to join in armies. The people who paid the greatest price through his presidency were the Indian tribes, whom he forced to move from their land which belonged to their ancestors. Therefore, in 1800s all the five civilizer tribes are Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, Seminoles and Cherokee wanted to adopt European ways of living for them to surviveRead MoreHow The Cherokee Nation Can Overcome Generational Ptsd1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKristin Quick Term Project 3-7-2016 How the Cherokee Nation Can Overcome Generational PTSD. The Removal Act of 1830, that forced the Cherokee Indians from their homelands with just the clothes on their backs have created tragic effects which have continued to be passed down from generation to generation, causing a near loss of the Cherokee culture. In 1838, the United States Military utilizing surprise attacks, snatched Cherokee families from their homes, work, and play at bayonet point to faceRead MoreThe Indian Removal Act Of 1830865 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhen the Indian Removal act of 1830 was enacted, the Cherokee Nation panicked. The Cherokee, specifically the romanticized Tsali, did their best to preserve their culture in the mountains of North Carolina, but what really saved them from their harsh fate that so many other Cherokee faced, was there white chief, William Holland Thomas. The Cherokee were Ã¢â¬Å"disagreeable and dangerous neighbors,Ã¢â¬ but they had a powerful ally in Raleigh, who saved the Eastern Band from a much harsher fate. The EasternRead MoreThe War Of The United States1616 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFurthermore, Mexican immigrants are continuously blamed for crimes such as drug trafficking, murder, and theft, despite there being no clear connection between the two. Such hate crimes and stereotypes are the result of the concept that immigrants are taking over the country and poisoning the true American ideals. A combination of all these factors has created a hostile environment for immigrants in the United States. Surely, there must be a simple solution to Americans and immigrants living in peaceRead MoreThe Cherokee Indians By Hernando De Soto1497 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Cherokee Indians lived in North American far longer than any other British decent or human being. Still they were compelled to move from their property (land), which was done in a fierce way, which had been theirs for quite a long time and hundreds of years. This excursion of evacuation was known as the Trail of Tears, and this paper will demonstrate the impa cts this moved had on the Cherokee individuals. It will let you know how they lived before they were compel to moved, clarify the occasionsRead MoreNative American Self Determination Movement1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageson from this last point the Native American self-determination movement has achieved almost all of its victories without outside help. Indeed many organisations such as the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI), Native American Rights Fund (NARF) and National Alaska Native American Indian Nurses Association (NANAINA) are run by and for Native Americans and their interests. As with most civil rights movements but even more the case as Native Americans have their own sovereign citizenship, forRead MoreComparison of How Spain, France, Britian, and America Interacted with the Natives1345 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswitness to the Florida Indians. For most of the 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s the Franciscan missions were the preverbal mediator between the Indians of Florida and the people of Spain. It was also reported that the Native people that lived in away from the missions did not feel the religious squeeze, but were however, still within the reach of the sickness brought over from Europe. The Indians that lived in the villages close to the missionaries started to change slowly. The ways that the Florida Indians had known their wholeRead MoreAmerican Imperialism And Expansion Of America Essay943 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAmerican Imperialism and Expansion What is American Imperialism? It is the influences that the United States makes on other countries. Some of the influences are economics, military, and culture. Expansionism is conquering those countries and taking over the land. Without imperialism and expansionism, our county would not be as big and productive as it is in today s society. In the nineteenth century, Many Americans saw western expansionism as the nation s manifest destiny. It is a
George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s horrendous yet prophetic vision of the future in his novel, 1984 has come and gone. In this nightmarish novel, Oceania, where the story takes place, is the perfect depiction of Ã¢â¬Å"Negative UtopiaÃ¢â¬ in which the government is in total control of their citizens. They control every aspect of their life. We will write a custom essay sample on Living in 1984 or any similar topic only for you Order Now From the smallest things as the clothes their citizen wore on a daily basis to the person they were allowed to marry to their thoughts. Freedom of choice and thought was unquestionable and was not allowed and anything or anyone that went against this principle or resisted oppression was completely suppressed themselves. Now, in 2006 under our current government there are a lot of similarities between the haunting novel of the Ã¢â¬Å"Negative UtopiaÃ¢â¬ which George Orwell portrays inÃ¢â¬ ¦.. Living in 1984-Today George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s horrendous yet prophetic vision of the future in his novel, 1984 has come and gone. In this nightmarish novel, Oceania, where the story takes place, is the perfect depiction of Ã¢â¬Å"Negative UtopiaÃ¢â¬ in which the government is in total control of their citizens. They control every aspect of their life. From the smallest things as the clothes their citizen wore on a daily basis to the person they were allowed to marry to their thoughts. Freedom of choice and thought was unquestionable and was not allowed and anything or anyone that went against this principle or resisted oppression was completely suppressed themselves. Now, in 2006 under our current government there are a lot of similarities between the haunting novel of the Ã¢â¬Å"Negative UtopiaÃ¢â¬ which George Orwell. How to cite Living in 1984, Papers
Thursday, April 23, 2020
New York Historical Society New York Historical Society: Construction: The cornerstone of the NYHS building at 170 Central Park West was laid on Nov. 17th 1903. Members and guest of the society gathered at the American Museum of Natural History and proceeded to the NYHS building site, a temporary scaffold and viewing stand had been erected for the day's events. After an invocation by the Rev. Charles E. Brugler, Pres. Samuel Verplank Hoffman, reviewed the society's history and listed the articles and publications sealed in a copper box in the corner stone. Hon. Seth Low Mayor of New York City then put the cornerstone into place. Manhattan Purchase: Legend has it that Manhattan Island was purchased from Lenape by Peter Minuit for $24. This account implies that the Dutch shrewdly got the best of the Indians who did not realize the potential value of their land. But it neglects the fact that the Dutch intended to perform a legitimate land deal. Their trading partners the Lenape, could hardly participate in a real estate deal of the type described, as the very concept of land ownership was alien to them. The Great Migration: In one of the largest population transfers of the modern era, millions of southern ans eastern Europeans poured into NY from 1880-1920. Alone the first were Italian men who traded poverty stricken villages for promises of labor recruiters known as padroni.Family and friends came eventually through intricate networks of village paesani, making an ardous journey to relocate to NY neighborhoods that would become Little Italies of the roughly 5 million Italians who arrived at Ellis Island by the early 20th century more than 1 million remained in NY. Today passports, immigration papers, and wooden trunks have passed through their families are a silent testimony to that immense human drama. Bibliography Visit to NYHS History Essays
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Impromptu Speech The first basic assignment which you are given in college is to write a good impromptu speech. In order to be able to write a good impromptu speech Ã¢â¬â you have to have great writing skills as well as imagination and creativity. Be prepared to write an impromptu speech on an unusual impromptu speech topic, and be ready to spend a lot of time writing an impromptu speech. If you decide to write the impromptu speech on your own Ã¢â¬â the first trap you may stumble upon Ã¢â¬â is the impromptu speech topic. You can not proceed writing the impromptu speech without defining the impromptu speech topic you want to write about. Usually, in most cases the professor leaves it up to you to choose an impromptu speech topic so you will have to spend some time coming up with the best impromptu speech topic, or choosing a topic among given free impromptu speech topics. If you lack any creativity when writing an impromptu speech Ã¢â¬â feel free to choose a topic from the list below: * Optimism and pessimism, who are you? * What is knowledge and what is wisdom. How are they alike and different? * A famous dead person I would like to meet * Is it moral to keep a pet at home? * Is a Zoo Ã¢â¬â a good place for animals? * The most important moral qualities * How to prevent pollution, what is the most serious threat? * Freedom, my understanding of this concept * Sex on the first date * Success, how to measure it? There are many other topics you can write about. In order to find a good impromptu speech topic Ã¢â¬â you can simply analyze everything you are interested in, and choose something what you feel is important. Here is an example: if you are fond of music Ã¢â¬â you can discuss if it is good or not to have an idol or a cult figure, etc. Your best decision in choosing the impromptu speech topic is the topic which suits you. CustomWritings.com offers online speech writing services which will help you find a suitable impromptu speech topic and write an impromptu speech for you. We have professional writers who are available and are always at your service. If you have problems writing a good impromptu speech on your own, why not have an expert in impromptu speeches help you? We write custom written speeches exceptionally, and all of them are of the best quality. Good quality does not presume that the paper will seem too smart and wordy Ã¢â¬â we will write the speech according to all your requirements and instructions. Just give CustomWritings.com a try, and you will be 100% satisfied with our premium performance.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Connotations of Secretary Connotations of Secretary Connotations of Secretary By Maeve Maddox Secretary is formed from secret. The noun suffix -ary comes from a Latin masculine form and means Ã¢â¬Å"belonging to or engaged in. The first Ã¢â¬Å"secretariesÃ¢â¬ were men who kept records and wrote letters for kings, i.e., they were people who could be trusted to keep secrets of state. Even today, although the word secretary in a business context lies on the trash heap of Ã¢â¬Å"political correctness,Ã¢â¬ it remains in honored use as the title of a highly placed government official, for example, Ã¢â¬Å"Secretary of StateÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Secretary of Defense.Ã¢â¬ At the beginning of the twentieth century, educational opportunities for women increased and the male fatalities of World War I opened new avenues to female employment. Ambitious young women, like the maid encouraged by Lady Sybil in the Downton Abbey series, aspired to the job of secretary as a means of escaping the drudgery and subservience of domestic employment. In previous decades, employment as a secretary had been a manÃ¢â¬â¢s job. As more and more women entered the occupation, the word secretary became feminized in the context of office work. Hollywood movies, novels, and television shows contributed to the various stereotypes that have grown up around the word: brainless young woman who files, takes telephone messages, and provides coffee for the men in the office. beautiful woman with large bosom ogled by boss and other men in the office beautiful/scheming woman looking to break up the bossÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage unattractive, highly efficient woman who conceals a decades-long love for the unsuspecting boss highly efficient elderly woman who lives only for her job I have never watched the television series Mad Men, but the Web abounds in articles about its presentation of the role of secretaries in the 1960s. These excerpts from an article in the New York Post (April 6, 2015) indicate that the writers for the series drew shamelessly on secretarial stereotypes: In six and a half seasons, Don has churned through nine secretaries, who were often the victim of their bossÃ¢â¬â¢ womanizing ways.Ã A switchboard operator in Season 1, Lois becomes DonÃ¢â¬â¢s secretary in Season 2 after PeggyÃ¢â¬â¢s promotion, but he fires her for being incompetent. The model-like Jane gets assigned to DonÃ¢â¬â¢s desk in Season 2 and it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t long before she starts an affair with Roger Sterling, who leaves his wife to marry her.Ã A Sterling Cooper employee since Season 1, Allison started as a receptionist and became DonÃ¢â¬â¢s secretary in Season 3. When a drunken Don forgets his keys after a Christmas party, she delivers them to his apartment and the two sleep together.Ã After Allison resigns, Joan assigns Bert CooperÃ¢â¬â¢s elderly secretary to DonÃ¢â¬â¢s desk, knowing sheÃ¢â¬â¢s the one secretary he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have an affair with (though it was revealed that in her younger years, Roger did just that). Blunt and cantankerous, Ida provided some comic relief before dying suddenly at her desk.Ã The French-Canadian Megan was promoted from the typing pool to DonÃ¢â¬â¢s secretary after Miss BlankenshipÃ¢â¬â¢s death and quickly leads her boss back into his womanizing ways. On a trip to California in the season finale, Don proposes on a whim and the two later marry.Ã An image search for Ã¢â¬Å"secretaries cartoonsÃ¢â¬ brings up screeds of drawings of varying degrees of offensiveness that perpetuate the stereotypes. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not surprising that the organization founded in 1942 as Ã¢â¬Å"The National Secretaries AssociationÃ¢â¬ - after several intervening name changes- has settled on this one: Ã¢â¬Å"The International Association of Administrative Professionals.Ã¢â¬ The widespread change from calling the employees formerly known as Ã¢â¬Å"secretariesÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"administrative assistantsÃ¢â¬ is justified by the argument that running an office is more complicated than it was in the past. But, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t everything? We still call teachers teachers and doctors doctors. Words other than secretary exist or could be coined for office jobs that do not entail as much work and expertise as that of secretary: receptionist, filing clerk, mail clerk, errand-runner, coffee-maker. I predict that if the occupation of Ã¢â¬Å"administrative assistantÃ¢â¬ turns out to employ mostly women, the term will take on the same sexist overtones as secretary. Euphemisms tend to take on the connotations they are invented to dispel. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Try to vs. Try andAppropriate vs. Apropos vs. Apt